Though individuals express their anger in many different ways, the two major ways people express their anger in today's society is instrumental and hostile.   


Instrumental aggression is aggression aimed at obtaining an object, privilege or space with no deliberate intent to harm another person. The two characteristics of instrumental aggression are goal directness and planning. Instrumental aggression often involves planning or preparation; however, at time, little planning goes on. Instrumental aggression usually involves diminutive or no frustration by the victim. Instrumental aggressors are motivated by the goals, not emotions. In some cases, instrumental aggressors try to calm themselves prior to an offense through drug use or drinking.


Hostile aggression is aggression intended to harm another person, such as hitting, kicking, or threatening to beat someone up. The two characteristics of hostile aggression are reaction to irritation and encouragement of aggression. The object of the hostile aggressor is to harm or injure the victim, due to feelings of enmity or suffering provoked by the victim’s actions. In hostile aggression, the aggressor and victim should have had some sort of conflict prior to the dispute.


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